A submarine is a watercraft. It is capable to work underwater independently. It is different from a submersible, which has a limited capacity to work underwater. A submarine can be mentioned as a boat instead of a ship irrespective of size. A submarine can work at the greater depth of the ocean for months and it is used to fight and destroy an enemy’s ship. The modern version of the submarine can fire cruise missiles at both ship and target on land.
Submarines were first extensively used during the First World War I took place between 1914 and 1918, and now it is being used by many navies and militaries on large and small scales across the world.
Military uses submarines to attack enemy surface ships including merchant and military, or other submarines, blockade running, aircraft carrier protection, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack like cruises missiles, and clandestine attack of special forces.
On the other hand, civilian uses submarine for study in marine science purpose, carry out salvage operation, exploration, facilitate inspection and maintenance, undersea cable repair, undersea archaeology, and tourism purpose.
Here are the 10 top largest submarines in the world
The Typhoon-class is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines that have been built and designed by the Soviet Union for its Navy.
It is currently under the possession of the Russian Navy. With a submerged displacement of 48,000 tonnes, it is the largest submarine ever been built in the world. It is able to ensure easy living facilities for the crew members of 160 when it submerges, comfortably living underwater for at least 120 days.
It has a length of 175m, a 23m beam, and a 12m draught. It is equipped with four 3,200KW turbogenerators, two 50,000hp steam turbines, and two nuclear water reactors.
It can sail at a speed of 27kt below water and 22.2kt on the surface. The submarine can carry 20 RSM-52 intercontinental three-stage solid propellant ballistic missiles that are capable to hold 100kt of nuclear warheads each. It is also equipped with type 53 torpedoes and six 533mm (21in) torpedo tubes.
It is an alternate transliteration Borey, Russian Project 955 Borei, and Project 955A Borei-A. It is also referred to as Dolgorukiy class, a series of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines built by Sevmash for the Russian Navy.
With a submerged displacement of 24,000 tonnes, the Borei-class is 170m-long and it has a 13.5m beam and a 10m draught. Borei-class submarine’s power plant consists of an OK-650 nuclear reactor, one shaft, and propeller, and one steam turbine. Read also Top 10 Fighter Aircrafts.
It sails at a speed of 29kt when submerged and 15kt on the surface. The submerged endurance depends on the availability of food stores inside the submarine. The submarine is able to carry 45t Bulava submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) and 16 missiles.
Other weapons are also included six 533mm torpedo tubes, six multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle warheads, and RPK-2 Viyuga cruise missiles.
Oscar II-class submarine
The Oscar II class, Soviet designations Project 949A Antey, is a series of nuclear-powered cruise missile submarines that have been designed in the former Soviet Union for its Navy.
With a submerged displacement 24,000 tonnes, Oscar II-class submarine is now being operated by Russian Navy. It measures 18m wide and 155m long.
The Project 949A submarine is equipped with six torpedo tubes and with 24 P-700 Granit anti-ship cruise missiles. The 949AM submarine carries 3M54 Kalibr supersonic cruise missiles.
The Oscar II-class is powered by two steam turbines and two pressurised water-cooled reactors. The propulsion system can ensure a maximum speed of 32kt when submerged and a surface speed of 15kt.
It is a nuclear-powered submarine that includes four cruise missile submarines (SSGNs) and the American Navy’s 14 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs).
With displacing 18,750 tons submerged, the Ohio-class submarine is the largest submarines ever built for the United States Navy. Each Ohio class submarine has a 13m beam, a length of 170m, and a 10.8m draught.
With submerged displacement 18,750 tonnes, the gliding speed of the Ohio-class is 20kt in underwater and on the surface is 12kt.
It includes one S8G pressurised water reactor, one auxiliary 242kW diesel motor, one shaft with a seven-bladed screw, and two geared turbines. The submarine is capable to carry 24 Trident missiles. The armament also includes four 53cm Mark 48 torpedo tubes.
It is Soviet designations Project 667BDRM Delfin (Delta IV), Project 667BDR Kalmar (Delta III), Project 667BD Murena-M (Delta II), and Project 667B Murena (Delta I). It is a series of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines.
It has been designed and built in the Soviet Union, which bent the backbone of the Russian and Soviet strategic submarine fleet since its introduction in 1973.
With submerged displacement 18,200 tonnes, it can carry nuclear ballistic missiles of the R-29 Vysota family. Read also World’s Top 10 Fastest Trains.
The submarine has a beam of 12.3m, a length of 166m, and draught of 8.8m. The power plant includes two steam turbines driving, two pressurised water-cooled reactors, and two five-bladed fixed-pitched shrouded propellers. The submerged speed of the Delta-class submarine is 24kt. The armoury includes two 400mm torpedo tubes, D-9D launch tubes for 16 R-29D SLBMs, and four 533mm.
The Vanguard-class submarine is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile one (SSBNs). Now it is in service with the Royal Navy. The Vanguard-class submarine was commenced in 1994 as part of the Trident nuclear programme.
With submerged displacement 15,900 tonnes, it includes four boats — Victorious, Vanguard, Vigilant and Vengeance. The class submarines are 149.9m-long and have a draught of 12m, and a beam of 12.8m.
Its main machinery includes two 20.5MW turbines manufactured by GEC, one pressurised water reactor supplied by Rolls-Royce, two auxiliary retractable propulsion motors, and one shaft pump jet propulsion. Read also Breakthrough of 10 Scientific Innovations.
Furthermore, two diesel alternators, and two turbo generators are also installed inside the submarine. The submarine can carry weapons with four 533mm torpedo tubes, and 16 Trident II missiles. The Vanguard-class submarine has a submerged speed of 25kt.
The Triomphant class submarine is a ballistic missile one and it is now under the possession of the French Navy.
With submerged displacement 14,335 tonnes, the class is now a part of the French Navy’s nuclear prevention strike force. The class includes four submarines, Terrible, namely Le Triomphant, Vigilant, and Téméraire.
Each submarine has a beam of 12.50m, a length of 138m, and a draught of 10.60m. The surface speed of the Triomphant-class submarine is 25kt.
The propulsion system of the submarine includes two SEMT Pielstick diesel-alternators, a pressurised water K15 nuclear reactor, a turbo reductor system, and 8PA4V200 SM auxiliary motors.
The submarine is equipped with 16 M45 intermediate-range missiles. The artillery also includes F17 torpedoes, TN 75-tipped missiles, and four 533mm torpedo tubes.
The Akula class submarine is a Soviet designated Project 971 Shchuka-B, and it is a series of nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) that was first deployed by the Soviet Navy in 1986.
It includes ten submarines of which nine are being operated by the Russian Navy’s service and one by the Indian Navy service.
With submerged displacement 13,800 tonnes, the submarine was featured an outer light hull, and a double hull unruffled of an inner pressure hull.
The length of the Akula class submarine is 110m, and it has draught of 9.7m, and a beam of 13.6m.
The surface pace of the submarine is 10kt, while its submerged speed is 35kt. The Akula-class submarine’s submerged endurance is 100 days.
Its main machineries are one steam turbine, one pressurised water nuclear reactor, and two turbo generators rated at 2,000KW.
The propulsion system of the submarine includes one retractable electric propulsor for reduced speed cruising and one seven-bladed propeller. The submarine is equipped with up to 12 submarine-launched cruise missiles.
It is also capable to carry nuclear missiles up to a range of 3,000 km. The defender also includes four 650mm torpedo tubes and four 533mm torpedo tubes.
The Yasen class submarine has been designated by Russian Project 885M Yasen-M and Project 885 Yasen. It has also been referred to as Graney class. It is a series of nuclear-powered cruise missile submarines that have been built by Sevmash for the Russian Navy.
It features a single hull made of low magnetic steel. It also reduces magnetic signature.
With submerged displacement 13,800 tonnes, the submarine has a beam and length of 139m and 15m respectively.
The weapon system of the submarine includes long-range supersonic anti-ship missiles (ASM), submarine-launched cruise missiles (SLCM), mines, anti-submarine missiles, torpedoes, and anti-submarine rockets. Read also about the Top 10 Best Destroyers in The World in 2022.
The mechanical design of the submarine has been featured by a KPM type pressurised water reactor and a steam turbine. The Yasen-class submarine can attain a maximum submerged pace of 35kt and a surface rate of 20kt.
The Sierra class submarine is Soviet designations Project 945A Kondor (Sierra II) and Project 945 Barrakuda (Sierra I). It is a series of nuclear-powered attack submarines that have been built for the former Soviet Navy but it is now being operated by the Russian Navy.
The Sierra-class submarine is unique due to its some special features like light and strong titanium pressure hull which enables the class of submarine to go underwater to a greater depth, increase resistance to torpedo attacks, and reduce the level of radiated noise.
With submerged displacement of 10,400 tonnes, the Sierra class submarine is powered by a single OK-650 pressurized water reactor.
The submarine has a beam of 14.2m and a length of 111m. The key equipment of the submarine includes one pressurised water nuclear reactor, one shaft, two emergency motors, and two spinners.
The estimated submerged speed of the submarine is 32kt. It has been equipped with modern equipment including four 530mm torpedo tubes, four 650mm torpedo tubes, SS-N-21 Sampson SLCM, SS-N-15 Starfish anti-submarine weapon, 42 mines, and SS-N-16 Stallion.